Yes. All voters eligible to vote under the Uniformed and Overseas Absentee Citizens Voting Act can vote in federal primaries.
In short, federal primaries elect people who will hold office in Washington, D.C. and represent your state/country. You can vote in those elections without hesitation.
State and local primaries for electoral positions other than federal offices usually only apply to you if you are temporarily overseas and continuing to pay state taxes.
Note that, in a presidential election year, many states hold both Presidential Preference Primaries (to select the presidential candidates) and State Primaries. Please consult the Election Dates and Deadlines page on this website to see upcoming election dates and to confirm the deadlines for registration and ballot requests.